How to design and choose the type of the slip rings
In the design and manufacture of slip rings, there are a number of factors needed to be taken into consideration. We know that the slip ring belongs to the applications of electrical contact, which mainly have two kinds of classification: one is the rotating electrical contact, which is also called as slip rings, conductive ring, and electric rotary joints; the other is the linear sliding electrical contact, among which the lead electric bow in the electric locomotive is most widely used, so far, the lead electric bow has a wide use in the bullet trains and high-speed rail. It is a complex mechanical electrical system integrated with tribology, hydraulic, pneumatic and tension control. Conductive slip ring is an electrical contact of friction, and transmitted by the carbon brush, and later, sheet metal materials and mercury are used. At present, multi-touch structure of precious metal wire are becoming more and more popular, which is the invention patent of American engineers Norries in the 1980s.
Compared with traditional mercury slip rings and carbon brushes, electrical slip ring has a very important applications and obvious advantages in complex systems. electrical slip ring is also known as electric brush, collector ring or circular distributor ring. In the practical usage, service life of the slip rings is an important problem. There are several factors affecting the service life of slip ring, including the structures (slip dings with different structures differ in the service life for hundreds or thousands times), material, the assembly process, and the working speed. When we design or choose the types of the slip rings, the temperature problem must be taken into consideration, that is, the environmental issues around the ring, the speed of the ring itself and the joule heat of the electrical contact. The rising temperature would affect the reliability of the slip ring, so we have to consider the effects of the temperature.
There are some features of the precious metals slip ring: 1.reliable contact. Brush with precious metal is the typical multi-touching points and compared with carbon brush, the touching points is in the multiple geometric relation.2. Good abrasion resistance. 3. Less abrasive dust. In the real practice, the dust is extremely easy to cause a short circuit among conductive rings, so it is very important to do routine maintenance of cleaning up the carbon power in the typical production of power generation, otherwise, it will cause fire disasters due to short circuit.
There are several principles of selecting the shell material of slip rings: 1. It must meet the need of field work environment, for example, the inside door of the rack should be dust-proof, and most of the engineering plastics can meet this requirements. If the size is much bigger, it needs to use aluminum alloy, copper, carbon steel or stainless steel.2. It must be considered the speed and strength of materials. If the speed is too quick, there could produce bigger vibration and the centrifugal force, so material with enough strength must be used as the shell.3. Manufacturability should be taken into consideration.